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Useful informations about candles
Essential oils in the candle
Candles can be mixed with ethereal scents. The possibilities of different smells are manifold.
Polarlichter-candles are basically made without essential oils.
Beeswax (latin CeraFlava = yellow wax) is a honeybee secreted wax used by them to build honeycombs.
At 62 to 65 ° C, beeswax becomes liquid. This makes it suitable to find application using special wick preparations in the production of candles.
As a starting material for the production of candles, however, it has largely been replaced by inexpensive stearin and paraffin.
Christendom and candles
As in most religions, in Christendom candles point to the divine.
The lighting of candles (light) is an ancient custom of worship and blessing in Christianity for more than 2000 years.
Beyond donating light, the candle has great symbolic significance. The candle dispels dark mysterious powers and is a symbol of salvation and protection (here is God).
Involved in all the Christian events taking place in the Church (joyful, festive or sad), the old "candlelight cycle" still exists.
The wick has the task to transport the liquid fuel mass. It takes a short time for the initially slightly flickering flame to stabilize and develop its full luminosity.
Decisive factors for the choice of wick are the material properties of the fuel, the associated braiding technique and special preparation of the wick.
Apart from just a few special applications, cotton is a leader in wicking.
The right choice of wick is the crucial aspect for the perfect burning of a candle. In particular, because not only the fuel but also any form of addition (micro waxes, scents, colors) have an effect to the burning behavior. Almost the wick manufacturers can provide information but ultimately the suitability of wicks can only be determined by long-term firing tests.
The melting point is called in a phase diagram the point at which a substance passes from the solid to the liquid state. Since the Polarlichter-candles consist of 100% paraffin, the melting point is about 50 - 60 ° C, that means that the candle wax begins to liquefies at about 50 ° C. For this reason, paraffin candles should not be exposed to the sun, because deformations take place near the melting point.
In principle, pigment colors or fat-soluble colors are used for the dyeing of candles. A distinction is made here between sheathing with paint (dipping) and complet dyeing. Complet dyeing, fat-soluble colors are used, whereby the entire fuel mass is colored. For dipping pigment paints are used. The candles of Polarlichter- candles are basically colored.
Some candle manufacturers also use a paint coating to achieve an effective appearance.
A quality difference in the burning behavior between dipped and solid-colored candles does not exist.
If you pour liquid wax into a mold and let it harden, it is called a cast candle. The wick is previously clamped in the mold or drilled subsequently. The advantage of the cast candle is that you can make as good as any shape of candle, if you are able to provide a suitable negative ago. The negatives can then usually be used many times.
History of the candle
Candles have been around for about 3000 years. The forerunner of the candles were torches. Also, the first candles that first appeared in the Near East did not have much to do with the appearance of today's candles. So they had e.g. no wicks, but consisted of straw, hemp, reed, etc., which was dipped in fat or resin and lit. You can imagine the stench.
Candles with beeswax as fuel were used much later. The oldest preserved wax candle is about 1900 years old.
Even in the Middle Ages beeswax was very expensive and so only churches and princely houses could afford them. The little citizen continued to burn off heavily smoking pinewood.
First production facilities for candles at the end of the 18th century led to a wider distribution.
French chemistry professor Eugene Chevreul filed a patent in 1824 for the production of stearin candles (natural wax derived from palm oil). This was followed in 1825 by an additional patent for the use of a chemically preserved and braided wick. This started the age of the candle as we know it today.
Today, the candle is a popular perennial favorite, which enjoys great popularity in all sorts of colors, shapes and fragrances.
As the name suggests, these candles are only for "inside" suitable. The strength and suction power of the wicks does not withstand wind and weather.
Season for candles
The season of candles was commonly the darker season (October to February), especially the Advent and Christmas period. With the advent of outdoor candles, candles are today an integral part of garden parties, outdoor events or just as a decoration for the outdoors.
A candle consists of a mostly geometric body, which represents the fuel (paraffin, stearin, etc.). This fuel melts at high temperatures but is solid up to about 50 ° C. In this body one or more (depending on the size of the candle) absorbent, specially prepared cotton threads (wicks) is incorporated.
After lighting the wick, the candle fuel melts. The capillary action of the wick transports liquid fuel into the flame where it evaporates and then burns in the presence of oxygen.
The rising of the warm combustion gases supplies the flame with fresh air and gives the candle flame the characteristic elongated shape.
The candle storage should ideally be dark, cool and dry place. If stored properly, no loss of quality is expected.
Candles that have several wicks due to their size. A single wick does not have the suction power to ensure a satisfactory burn in a large candle. The choice of wicks in multi-wick-candles is of the highest complexity, since the wicks in the candle influence each other. Only recurring firing tests, which also take into account the composition of the fuel mass and the amount of added dye, ensure a perfect burning behaviour.
Some candle manufacturers offer the possibility to decorate candles individually with the lettering of a desired name. These candles are then called name candles.
As the name suggests, these candles are made only for "outside". They are characterized by special wax mixtures and primarily by very strong specially prepared wicks. Outdoor candles burn more like torches and even a "soot" is unavoidable. For that they defy also wind and weather. Please note the firing instructions.
(Latin parum affinis, "little related" or "less reactive") denotes a mixture of alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons) having the general empirical formula CnH2n + 2. For the production of candles, the so-called hard paraffin is used, which has a melting point of about 50 and 60 ° C. Due to its properties and non-toxicity, hard paraffin is an ideal material for the production of candles, especially since these are mainly used in closed rooms and may contain no harmful substances.
Square multi-wick candles
A special challenge in the field of candles is the production of square multi-wick candles. Since these do not burn down completely, but the candle body is hollowed out, the composition of the fuel mass and the right choice of nickname should pay particular attention. Be sure to observe the burning instructions and the maximum burning time here.
Candles tend at times to soot. This can have various reasons.
Here you have to distinguish between outdoor candles and indoor candles.
Outdoor candles have a very strong wick, so they do not go out in the wind and weather. They burn like a torch and always sting.
In the case of indoor candles, selecting a wick that is unsuitable for the fuel can lead to sooting. Furthermore, too long wicks cause soot. Here it should be noted that a wick of about 1 cm in length represents the optimum. To shorten the wicks special wick scissors can be used.
Stearin is used as an alternative to paraffin as a candle raw material for the production of candle fuel. It is a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids, mainly derived from palm oil and animal fats.
The melting range of stearin is between 60 and 70 ° C.
Stearin is considered the natural candle raw material, although it should be noted that stearin is derived from palm oil. The problem of recovering palm oil has been sufficiently addressed by the press.
Tea light is a small candle in an aluminum bowl, rarely made of other metal or glass. The most common size of tealights is about 40 mm in diameter with a burning time of 3 - 4 hours.
When burning candles, always use a heat-resistant refractory base. For this is very well a slate. The slightly nobler variant are candlesticks.
Paraffin waxes are often added to stearin. This has various reasons.
Vybar is an additive that is added to paraffin candles in very low concentrations as a substitute for stearin. This leads to a better formability. The candles are more brilliant in gloss and color.
An eternal nuisance. The burning instructions have not been read and the candle has leaked.
Remedy: Wax stains can be obtained with the help of absorbent paper (fleece or blotting paper) from textiles. For this you put the paper on the spot and iron it with a hot iron over it. The paper absorbs the wax. Repeat it multiple times and the stain is raised.
Additions of microcrystalline waxes
Micro waxes (also called microcrystalline waxes), like paraffin, are obtained from the distillation of mineral oils.
The microwaxes have solidification points between 70 and 80 ° C. By adding microcrystalline waxes, the heat and cold properties of candles can be changed for specific purposes.